Republic of the Philippines
Securities and Exchange Commission

Securities Regulation Code


Exchanges and Other Securities Trading Markets


SEC. 32. Prohibition on Use of Unregistered Exchange; Regulation of Over-the-Counter Markets. -

32.1.    No broker, dealer, salesman, associated person of a broker or dealer, or Exchange, directly or indirectly, shall make use of any facility of an Exchange in the Philippines to effect any transaction in a security, or to report such transaction, unless such Exchange is registered as such under Section 33 of this Code.

32.2.   a)          No broker, dealer, salesman or associated person of a broker or dealer, singly or in concert with any other person, shall make, create or operate, or enable another to make, create or operate, any trading market, otherwise than on a registered Exchange, for the buying and selling of any security, except in accordance with rules and regulations the Commission may prescribe.

b)        The Commission may promulgate rules and regulations governing transactions by brokers, dealers, salesmen or associated persons of a broker or dealer, over any facilities of such trading market and may require such market to be administered by a self-regulatory organization determined by the Commission as capable of insuring the protection of investors comparable to that provided in the case of a registered Exchange.  Such self-regulatory organization must provide a centralized marketplace for trading and must satisfy requirements comparable to those prescribed for registration of Exchanges in Section 33 of this Code.


SEC.  33.  Registration of Exchanges.

33.1.    Any Exchange may be registered as such with the Commission under the terms and conditions hereinafter provided in this Section and Section 40 hereof, by filing an application for registration in such form and containing such information and supporting documents as the Commission by rule shall prescribe, including the following:

a)        An undertaking to comply and enforce compliance by its members with the provisions of this Code, its implementing rules or regulations and the rules of the Exchange;

b)        The organizational charts of the Exchange, rules of procedure, and a list of its officers and members;

c)        Copies of the rules of the Exchange; and

d)        An undertaking that in the event a member firm becomes insolvent or when the Exchange shall have found that the financial condition of its member firm has so deteriorated that it cannot readily meet the demands of its customers for the delivery of securities and/or payment of sales proceeds, the Exchange shall, upon order of the Commission, take over the operation of the insolvent member firm and immediately proceed to settle the member firm’s liabilities to its customers.

33.2.    Registration of an Exchange shall be granted upon compliance with the following provisions:

a)        That the applicant is organized as a stock corporation: Provided, That any registered Exchange existing prior to the effectivity of this Code shall within one (1) year reorganize as a stock corporation pursuant to a demutualization plan approved by the Commission;

b)        That the applicant is engaged solely in the business of operating an exchange: Provided, however, That the Commission may adopt rules, regulations or issue an order, upon application, exempting an Exchange organized as a stock corporation and owned and controlled by another juridical person from this restriction.

c)        Where the Exchange is organized as a stock corporation, that no person may beneficially own or control, directly or indirectly, more than five percent (5%) of the voting rights of the Exchange and no industry or business group may beneficially own or control, directly or indirectly, more than twenty percent (20%) of the voting rights of the Exchange: Provided, however, That the Commission may adopt rules, regulations or issue an order, upon application, exempting an applicant from this prohibition where it finds that such ownership or control will not negatively impact on the exchange’s ability to effectively operate in the public interest.

d)        The expulsion, suspension, or disciplining of a member and persons associated with a member for conduct or proceeding inconsistent with just and equitable principles of fair trade, and for violations of provisions of this Code, or any other Act administered by the Commission, the rules, regulations and orders thereunder, or the rules of the Exchange;

e)         A fair procedure for the disciplining of members and persons associated with members, the denial of membership to any person seeking to be a member, the barring of any person from association with a member, and the prohibition or limitation of any person from access to services offered by the Exchange;

f)         That the brokers in the board of the Exchange shall comprise of not more than forty-nine percent (49%) of such board and shall proportionately represent the Exchange membership in terms of volume/value of trade and paid up capital, and that any natural person associated with a juridical entity that is a member shall himself be deemed to be a member for this purpose: Provided, That any registered Exchange existing prior to the effectivity of this Code shall immediately comply with this requirement;

g)         For the board of the Exchange to include in its composition (i) the president of the Exchange, and (ii) no less than fifty one percent (51%) of the remaining members of the board to be comprised of three (3) independent directors and persons who represent the interests of issuers, investors, and other market participants, who are not associated with any broker or dealer or member of the Exchange for a period of two (2) years prior to his/her appointment. No officer or employee of a member, its subsidiaries or affiliates or related interests shall become an independent director: Provided, however, That the Commission may by rule, regulation, or order upon application, permit the exchange organized as a stock corporation to use a different governance structure: Provided, further, That the Commission is satisfied that the Exchange is acting in the public interest and is able to effectively operate as a self-regulatory organization under this Code: Provided, finally, That any registered exchange  existing prior to the effectivity of this Code shall immediately comply with this requirement.

h)        The president and other management of the Exchange to consist only of persons who are not members and are not associated in any capacity, directly or indirectly with any broker or dealer or member or listed company of the Exchange: Provided, That the Exchange may only appoint, and a person may only serve, as an officer of the exchange if such person has not been a member or affiliated with any  broker, dealer, or member of the Exchange for a period of at least two (2) years prior to such appointment;

i)          The transparency of transactions on the Exchange;

j)          The equitable allocation of reasonable dues, fees, and other charges among members and issuers and other persons using any facility or system which the Exchange operates or controls;

k)         Prevention of fraudulent and manipulative acts and practices, promotion of just and equitable principles of trade, and, in general, protection of investors and the public interest; and

l)          The transparent, prompt and accurate clearance and settlement of transactions effected on the Exchange.

33.3.    If the Commission finds that the applicant Exchange is capable of complying and enforcing compliance by its members, and persons associated with such members, with the provisions of this Code, its rules and regulations, and the rules of the Exchange, and that the rules of the Exchange are fair, just and adequate, the Commission shall cause such Exchange to be registered.  If, after notice due and hearing, the Commission finds otherwise, the application shall be denied.

33.4.    Within ninety (90) days after the filing of the application the Commission may issue an order either granting or denying registration as an Exchange, unless the Exchange applying for registration shall withdraw its application or shall consent to the Commission’s deferring action on its application for a stated longer period after the date of filing.  The filing with the Commission of an application for registration by an Exchange shall be deemed to have taken place upon the receipt thereof.  Amendments to an application may be made upon such terms as the Commission may prescribe.

33.5.    Upon the registration of an Exchange, it shall pay a fee in such amount and within such period as the Commission may fix.

33.6.    Upon appropriate application in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Commission and upon such terms as the Commission may deem necessary for the protection of investors, an Exchange may withdraw its registration or suspend its operations or resume the same.


SEC.  34. Segregation and Limitation of Functions of Members, Brokers and Dealers.

34.1.    It shall be unlawful for any member-broker of an Exchange to effect any transaction on such Exchange for its own account, the account of an associated person, or an account with respect to which it or an associated person thereof exercises investment discretion: Provided, however, That this section shall not make unlawful -

a)        Any transaction by a member-broker acting in the capacity of a market maker;

b)        Any transaction reasonably necessary to carry on an odd-lot transactions;

c)        Any transaction to offset a transaction made in error; and

d)        Any other transaction of a similar nature as may be defined by the Commission.

34.2.    In all instances where the member-broker effects a transaction on an Exchange for its own account or the account of an associated person or an account with respect to which it exercises investment discretion, it shall disclose to such customer at or before the completion of the transaction it is acting for its own account: Provided, further, That this fact shall be reflected in the order ticket and the confirmation slip.   

34.3.    Any member-broker who violates the provisions of this Section shall be subject to the administrative sanctions provided in Section 54 of this Code.


SEC.  35. Additional Fees of Exchanges. - In addition to the registration fee prescribed in Section 33 of this Code, every Exchange shall pay to the Commission, on a semestral basis on or before the tenth day of the end of every semester of the calendar year, a fee in such an amount as the Commission shall prescribe, but not more than one-hundredth of one per centum (1%) of the aggregate amount of the sales of securities transacted on such Exchange during the preceding calendar year, for the privilege of doing business, during the preceding calendar year or any part thereof.


SEC. 36. Powers with Respect to Exchanges and Other Trading Market.

36.1.    The Commission is authorized, if in its opinion such action is necessary or appropriate for the protection of investors and the public interest so requires, summarily to suspend trading in any listed security on any Exchange or other trading market for a period not exceeding thirty (30) days or, with the approval of the President of the Philippines, summarily to suspend all trading on any securities Exchange or other trading market for a period of more than thirty (30) but not exceeding ninety (90) days: Provided, however, That the Commission, promptly following the issuance of the order of suspension, shall notify the affected issuer of the reasons for such suspension and provide such issuer with an opportunity for hearing to determine whether the suspension should be lifted.

36.2.   Wherever two or more Exchanges or other trading markets exist, the Commission may require and enforce uniformity of trading regulations in and/or between or among said Exchanges or other trading markets.

36.3.    In addition to the existing Philippine Stock Exchange, the Commission shall have the authority to determine the number, size and location of stock Exchanges, other trading markets and commodity Exchanges and other similar organizations in the light of national or regional requirements for such activities with the view to promote, enhance, protect, conserve or rationalize investment.

36.4.    The Commission, having due regard to the public interest, the protection of investors, the safeguarding of securities and funds, and maintenance of fair competition among brokers, dealers, clearing agencies, and transfer agents, shall promulgate rules and regulations for the prompt and accurate clearance and settlement of securities transactions.

36.5.    a)        The Commission may establish or facilitate the establishment of trust funds which shall be contributed by Exchanges, brokers, dealers, underwriters, transfer agents, salesmen and other persons transacting in securities, as the Commission may require, for the purpose of compensating investors for the extraordinary losses or damage they may suffer due to business failure or fraud or mismanagement of the persons with whom they transact, under such rules and regulations as the Commission may from time to time prescribe or approve in the  public interest.

b)        The Commission may, having due regard to the public interest or the protection of investors, regulate, supervise, examine, suspend or otherwise discontinue such and other similar funds under such rules and regulations which the Commission may promulgate, and which may include taking custody and management of the fund itself as well as investments in and disbursements from the funds under such forms of control and supervision by the Commission as it may from time to time require.  The authority granted to the Commission under this subsection shall also apply to all funds established for the protection of investors, whether established by the Commission or otherwise.


SEC. 37. Registration of Innovative and Other Trading Markets. - The Commission, having due regard for national economic development, shall encourage competitiveness in the market by promulgating within six (6) months upon the enactment of this Code, rules for the registration and licensing of innovative and other trading markets or Exchanges covering, but not limited to, the issuance and trading of innovative securities, securities of small, medium, growth and venture enterprises, and technology-based ventures pursuant to Section 33 of this Code.


SEC. 38. Independent Directors. - Any  corporation with a class of equity securities listed for trading on an Exchange or with assets in excess of Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000.00) and having two hundred (200) or more holders, at least of two hundred (200) of which are holding at least one hundred (100) shares of a class of its equity securities or which has sold a class of equity securities to the public pursuant to an effective registration statement in compliance with Section 12 hereof shall have at least two (2) independent directors or such independent directors shall constitute at least twenty percent (20%) of the members of such board, whichever is the lesser.  For this purpose, an “independent director” shall mean a person other than an officer or employee of the corporation, its parent or subsidiaries, or any other individual having a relationship with the corporation, which would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities of a director.


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